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什么是RH血型?

1

The Rhesus, or Rh, blood group is part of 35 known blood group systems in humans and is the second most important blood group after the ABO system.1后者血型系统是一个决定,如果我们有A,B,AB或O型血,这取决于这些蛋白的存在提供了红血细胞的表面上。

The Rh blood group system involves 50 different blood group proteins and the five most important ones are D, C, c, E, and e. When Rhesus tests are performed on an individual, it determines whether the D antigen is present on the surface of the red blood cells or not and this is indicated by stating that the person is either Rh positive or negative. The presence or absence of the D antigen on the surface of the red blood cells depends on the individual’s parents since the protein is inherited and around 85 percent of humans are Rh positive.

History of Rhesus

恒河血型被发现在1937年和named after the Rhesus monkey. The reason for this was because serum containing the antigens of the Rhesus blood group was produced by rabbits that were immunized with the blood of a Rhesus macaque.2

临床意义

在某些情况下,个体之间的Rh不相容可能导致称为新生儿或恒河猴疾病,其中在胎儿的血液中的红血细胞被破坏的溶血性疾病的医学病症由于抗体攻击细胞的表面上。3During a怀孕,the expectant mother is tested at her ante-natal examination to determine what her Rh status is.

The mother is Rh negative

In this case, the father of the child is also tested and one of two scenarios occurs.

  • 如果父亲是Rh阴性,那么胎儿也会d抗原转阴,并不会出现任何不兼容的问题。
  • 如果父亲是Rh阳性,则有机会对胎儿也将是Rh阳性。What this means is that when the mother and fetus’ blood come into contact with each other, the maternal blood will recognise the fetus blood as foreign (because there’s no D antigen on the surface of the red blood cells) and the maternal immune system will start to produce antibodies known as IgG anti-D antibodies which attack the D antigens and this results in damage to the red blood cells of the fetus. The baby from the woman’s first pregnancy won’t really be affected because maternal and fetal blood only comes into contact with each other during childbirth, whether it’s a normal vaginal delivery or via Caesarean section. The time of exposure is therefore limited and no damage to the baby’s red blood cells occurs. Rhesus disease will be an issue in the proceeding pregnancies though because the mother has the anti-D antibodies circulating in her bloodstream and this will come into contact with the next fetus and cause damage to its red blood cells.

母亲为Rh阳性

  • 由于大多数人都是Rh阳性的父亲不会定期进行测试。如果他是,结果是Rh阳性,则胎儿也将恒河猴阳性。
  • 如果父亲是Rh阴性,有机会的话,胎儿也将是Rh阴性。这种情况是没有问题的,因为上述问题,因为当有母亲和胎儿的血液之间的接触,孩子的免疫系统会产生IgG抗d抗体。然而,这并不重要,因为母亲和孩子的血液不分娩后再次接触。当这种情况可能是有问题的是,如果孩子是女性,因为她怀孕以后的生活的潜力,她一直循环,可能会影响她的胎儿,如果是Rh阳性抗d抗体。

Nowadays though, if there’s a Rh incompatibility issue where the mother is Rh negative, an IgG anti-D vaccine is administered to the mother during and after the pregnancy to prevent her immune system from producing the antibodies. Make sure you follow the right test. AtXpertdox你可以找到最好的医生或医院用于治疗任何罕见的疾病。

References

1。迪恩L.血型与红细胞抗原[互联网]。贝塞斯达(MD):美国国家生物技术信息中心(美国);beplay app ios2005. Chapter 7, The Rh blood group. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2269/

2。Landsteiner, K.; Weiner, A. (1940). “An Agglutinable Factor in Human Blood Recognized by Immune Sera for Rhesus Blood”.EXP生物学医学。43(1):223。doi10.3181 / 00379727-43-11151

3。迪恩L.血型与红细胞抗原[互联网]。贝塞斯达(MD):美国国家生物技术信息中心(美国);beplay app ios2005年第4章,新生儿溶血症。可从以下https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2266/

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